In 1832, Tsar Nicholas I added Article 995 which outlawed muzhelozhstvo. Persons convicted beneath Article 995 were to be stripped of their rights and relocated to Siberia for four to five years. The comparatively high number of brazenly gay or bisexual artists and intellectuals continued on into the late nineteenth century. The historical past of lesbian, homosexual, bisexual and transgender individuals in Russia and its historic antecedents has largely been influenced by the political leanings of its rulers. Medieval Catholic-Protestant Europe had the most important influence on Russian perspective towards homosexuality.